Craniofacial and dental stem cells: the almighty cell!

Due to the high prevalence of dental and periodontal pathologies that cause irreversible damage to teeth and maxillary structures, it is necessary to approach new therapeutical strategies. The human dental pulp Stem cells (DPSCs), basic in the mechanisms of tissue development and regeneration (Gronthos et al/ 2000 Shi et al/ 2001) are fundamental in regenerative medicine and dentistry; therefore it is important to find an isolation method for optimal cryopreservation for later clinical use. However, there are several challenges in relation to the quality and safety in clinical applications of adult stem cells, particularly those related to the conservation of these ex-vivo cells at extremely low temperatures.

Recent studies describe methods for characterization, isolation and cultivation of DPSCs (Gronthos/2000; Miura/2003; Laino/2005; Iohara/2006; Kerkis/2006; Lindroos/2008; Pinheiro/2008; Suchanek/2009; Spath/2009). Few studies report DPSCs cryopreservation methods (Papaccio/2006; Perry/2008; Woods/2009) although they do not analyze factors which may be decisive in the effectiveness of processes.

Krebsbach P, Gehron R P. Dental and skeletal Stem cells: Potential Cellular Therapeutics for Craniofacial Regeneration. Journal of Dental Education. 2002, 66 (6): 766 – 773.

Pittenger MF, et al. Multilineage potential of adult human Mesenchymal Stem cells. Science 1999; 248: 143–7.

Gronthos S, Mankani M, Brahim J,Robey P G, Shi S. Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC’s) in vitro and in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Dec 5; 97 (25): 13625-30.

Miura M, Gronthos S, Zhao M . SHED: stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth. PNAS. 2003. (100):5807–12.

Kerkis I, Kerkis A, Dozortsev D, Stukart-Parsons GC, Gomes Massironi SM, Pereira LV, Caplan AI, Cerruti H. Isolation and characterization of a population of immature dental pulp stem cells expressing OCT-4 and other embryonic stem cell markers Cells Tissues Organs. 2006;184 (3-4):105-16.

Iohara K et al. The Side Population Cells Isolated from Porcine Dental Pulp Tissue with Self-renewal and Multipotency for Dentinogénesis, Chondrogenesis, Adipogenesis and Neurogenesis. Stem Cells. 2006. 24(11). 2493-2503.

Pinheiro S L, Marchadier A, Donas P, Septier D, Benhamou L, Kellerman O, Goldberg M, Poliard A. An in vivo  model for short term evaluation for the implantation effects of biomolecules or stem cells in the dental pulp. Open Dentistry Journal. 2008; 2: 67 -72.

Suchanek J et al. Dental pulp stem cells and their characterization. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2009 Mar;153(1):31-5.

Seo BM., Miura M, Sonoyama  W, Coppe  C, Stanyon R, Shi S. Recovery of Stem Cells from Cryopreserved Periodontal Ligament. J Dent Res 84(10):907-912, 2005.

Woods E. J, Perry B. C, Hockema J. J, Larson L, Zhou D, Goebel W. S. Optimized cryopreservation method for human dental pulp-derived stem cells and their tissues of origin for banking and clinical use. Cryobiology. 2009. 59; 150-157.

Papaccio G, Graziano A, d’Aquino R, Graziano MF, Pirozzi G, Menditti D, De Rosa A, Carinci F, Laino G. J Cell Physiol. Long-term cryopreservation of dental pulp stem cells (SBP-DPSCs) and their differentiated osteoblasts: a cell source for tissue repair. 2006 Aug; 208(2):319-25.

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COLOMBIA ORAL BIOLOGY  <—- click here for more info!

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Stem Cells Therapy

Regeneration has fascinated philosophers and scientists since the beginning of history. The wide but uneven distribution of regenerative capacities among multicellular organisms is puzzling, and the permissive/inhibitory mechanisms regulating this attribute in animals remain a mystery. The way to do that is to develop a conversation with the body. We need to learn to speak the body’s language.To switch on processes we investigate how to do when we were a fetus. Like adults we conserve stem cells.

The development of new therapies for chronic disease and injury by funding stem cell research programs and regenerative medicine under the highest ethical and medical standards for the discovery and development of cures, therapies, diagnostics and research technologies to relieve human suffering from chronic disease and injury.

Another goal is to make stem cells safe and effective for regenerative medicine therapies for diseases such as Diabetes, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, Blindness, Deafness, Arthritis, Heart Disease, Liver Disease, Huntington’s Disease, Cancer and many others.

More About Stem Cells For Osteoarthritis <–info

Can repair stem cells treat my disease?

This list was pulled from http://www.donmargolis.com the only blog that organizes all of it’s articles based on diseases that are treatable with repair stem cells.  Click  below to read actual articles about patients who have received stem cell treatments for over 100 diseases. If you don’t see your condition listed here, feel free to contact me for more information.  Top Stem Cell Treatment Blog <–more info

Foster City woman races to find stem cell donor for cousin with leukemia <–more info

Diseases NOW Being Treated by Stem Cells.

The Repair Stem Cell Institute has compiled a comprehensive list of Repair Stem Cell doctors, physicians, and researchers who are treating patients now. There is no need to wait 5-10 years for USA Repair Stem Cell clinical trials to be completed or 10-20 years for embryonic derived treatments. Cutting-edge Repair Stem Cell companies and physicians are giving their patients a better quality of life NOW – patients who, at home, are told that “their disease is incurable” and “there is nothing more you can do.”

For detailed information visit:

The Don Margolis Blog: Adult Stem Cells – The Greatest Medicine Known to Humankind <–press here

Treating Genetic Disorders Before Birth

Fortifying the fetus: By studying the immune systems of 14-day-old mouse embryos (shown here in an ultrasound), researchers have shown that genetic blood disorders might be treatable before birth. Credit: Journal of Clinical Investigation

Fortifying the fetus: By studying the immune systems of 14-day-old mouse embryos (shown here in an ultrasound), researchers have shown that genetic blood disorders might be treatable before birth. Credit: Journal of Clinical Investigation

Physicians may one day be able to treat genetic blood diseases before a child is even born. In a study of mice that was published this week in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, have found that transplanting a mother’s own stem cells into her fetus populates its bone marrow with healthy cells while avoiding immune rejection.

If the findings hold true in humans, stem-cell transplants from mother to fetus could prime the fetus for a bone-marrow transplant from its mother—or a donor that is tissue-matched to the mother—after birth. Diseases such as sickle cell anemia and beta thalassemia result from abnormal red blood cells and can be treated with bone-marrow transplants. But it’s not always possible to find a match.   And standard bone-marrow transplants, even between tissue-matched donors, must be followed with a lengthy course of immunosuppressive drugs. Scientists theorize that bone-marrow transplants performed when a fetus is still developing would override this problem. They suspect that the fetus’s immature immune system could be tricked into adopting those foreign cells and recognizing them as its own. “The fetus is wired to tolerate cells—when it encounters cells from mom, it tolerates them,” says Tippi MacKenzie, the pediatric surgeon at UCSF who led the new research.

Researchers are working on transplanting stem cells in utero. <–more info

Rush for patents is choking US stem cell research

Cures for paralysis, blindness and diabetes could all be in reach with embryonic stem cell research, but the pursuit of medical progress is being choked by the US rush to secure patents, experts say. Scientists are busily filing for legal patents that give them exclusive intellectual property rights for each discovery they make in the hopes that one day, one will lead to a blockbuster cure and big cash for those who devised it.

But the process means that US scientists — already stymied by years of government funding freezes linked to controversy over the destruction of human embryos — often find themselves blocked because other universities or private companies have already secured exclusive rights.  “You just have this complete minefield out there and you know who the victims are? It’s the patients,” said Bob Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology, which is researching the use of human embryonic stem cells to halt some forms of blindness.

Stem cell Patents <–more info.

Stem Cells Clinical Trials

Clinical trials often involve patients with specific health conditions who then benefit from receiving otherwise unavailable treatments. In early phases, participants are healthy volunteers who receive financial incentives for their inconvenience. During dosing periods, study subjects typically remain on site at the unit for durations of anything from 1 to 30 nights, occasionally longer, although is not always required. Clinical trials are conducted to allow safety and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g., drugs, diagnostics, devices, therapy protocols). These trials can take place only after satisfactory information has been gathered on the quality of the non-clinical safety, and Health Authority/Ethics Committee approval is granted in the country where the trial is taking place.

ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry of federally and privately supported clinical trials conducted in the United States and around the world. ClinicalTrials.gov gives you information about a trial’s purpose, who may participate, locations, and phone numbers for more details. This information should be used in conjunction with advice from health care professionals. Review the current clinical trials with human stem cells around the world <— more info

Pulled teeth stored for stem cells

Dentists are pulling teeth, then having the stem cells stored in case they’re needed to fight disease.

Naidelys Montoya didn’t wait for her son’s baby teeth to fall out. She took the boy to an oral surgeon to have two of the loose ones extracted. “He was a bit scared,” said Montoya, of Hialeah. “He’s not that brave.” The dentist shipped the teeth in a temperature-controlled steel container to a lab in Massachusetts, where their stem cells will be spun out, frozen to more than 100 degrees below zero and stored — in case her son, Raul Estrada, 6, might need them for a future illness. “I believe in this,” Montoya said. “I did as a precaution against things that could happen in the future.”  Montoya and her son have joined a major new medical movement.

Dentist Dr. Jeffrey Blum holds up a molar similar to the one that would be sent to a cryogenics lab in New York City to be frozen and stored.

Dentist Dr. Jeffrey Blum holds up a molar similar to the one that would be sent to a cryogenics lab in New York City to be frozen and stored.

All Around the world, dentists are extracting baby teeth, wisdom teeth and even healthy adult teeth, and researchers are spinning out stem cells that they believe can be used to regrow lost teeth, someday even to repair damaged bones, hearts, pancreases, muscles and brains.It could put the Tooth Fairy out of business. “These are teeth we’ve been discarding as dental waste,” said Dr. Jeffrey Blum, the Miami Beach oral surgeon who pulled Raul’s teeth. “We might as well get some use out of them.” “I can’t help but feel excitement for their potential use in regenerating different tissues in the human body,” said Dr. Jeremy Mao, director of the Regenerative Medicine Laboratory at Columbia University. Mao also is chief science advisor to StemSave, a New York City company that freezes the stem cells and stores them for later use.

There are concerns. It’s expensive, costing $590 upfront plus $100 a year to store the stem cells from up to four teeth for up to 20 years. It’s speculative, with the first FDA-approved practical use of such stem cells years away. “Every treatment using dental stem cells is still in the clinical testing phase, and won’t be ready for general use for at least five years,” said Art Greco, StemSave’s CEO.

The National Institutes of Health concluded in 2003 that teeth are a rich source of stem cells. Every child has about 20 baby teeth that fall out between ages 6 and 12. Adolescents have wisdom teeth that often are removed between ages 14 and 25 because they crowd the jaw or grow in crookedly.

StemSave. Saving Cells For Life <–more info

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Scientists convert skin cells to beating heart cells

Scripps Research Institute scientists have converted adult skin cells directly into beating heart cells efficiently without having to first go through the laborious process of generating embryonic-like stem cells.  The powerful general technology platform could lead to new treatments for a range of diseases and injuries involving cell loss or damage, such as heart disease, Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Conversion of mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes using a direct reprogramming strategy

Conversion of mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes using a direct reprogramming strategy

The work was published January 30, 2011, in an advance, online issue of Nature Cell Biology. “This work represents a new paradigm in stem cell reprogramming,” said Scripps Research Associate Professor Sheng Ding, Ph.D., who led the study. “We hope it helps overcome major safety and other technical hurdles currently associated with some types of stem cell therapies.” (Replacing body parts – the future of organ transplant by Stem Cell Assays)

Making Stem Cells

As the human body develops, embryonic-like stem cells multiply and transform themselves into more mature cell types through a process known as differentiation, producing all of the body’s different cell types and tissues. Past the embryonic stage, however, the human body has limited capacity to generate new cells to replace ones that have been lost or damaged.

Thus, scientists have been trying to develop ways to “reprogram” adult human cells back to a more embryonic-like, or pluripotent, state, from which they are able to divide and then change into any of the body’s cell types. Using these techniques, scientists aim to someday be able to take a patient’s own cells, say skin cells, change them into heart or brain cells, and then insert them back into the patient to fix damaged tissues. In 2006, Japanese scientists reported that they could reprogram mouse skin cells to become pluripotent simply by inserting a set of four genes into the cells.

Although the technology to generate these cells, dubbed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, represents a major advance, there are some hurdles to overcome before it can be adapted to stem cells and regenerative medicine therapies. “It takes a long time to generate iPS cells and then differentiate them into tissue-specific functional cell types,” said Ding, “and it’s a tedious process. Also, what you generate is not ideal.” Specifically, it takes some two to four weeks for scientists to create iPS cells from skin cells and the process is far from efficient, with only one cell out of thousands making the complete transformation. Furthermore, once scientists obtain iPS cells, they then have to go through the tricky procedure of inducing the iPS cells to differentiate into desired types of cells, which takes an additional two to four weeks. In addition, the process of generating mature cells from iPS cells is not foolproof. When, for example, scientists induce iPS cells to become heart cells, the resulting cells are a mix of heart cells and some lingering iPS cells. Scientists are concerned that giving these new heart cells (along with the remaining pluripotent cells) to patients might be dangerous. When pluripotent cells are injected in mice, they cause cancer-like growths.

Because of these concerns, Ding and colleagues decided to try to tweak the process by completely bypassing the iPS stage and going directly from one type of mature cell (a skin cell) to another (a heart cell).

Bypassing the Stem Cell Stage

The team introduced the same four genes initially used to make iPS cells into adult skin fibroblast cells, but instead of letting the genes be continuously active in cells for several weeks, they switched off their activities just after a few days, long before the cells had turned into iPS cells. Once the four genes were switched off, the scientists gave a signal to the cells to make them turn into heart cells. “In 11 days, we went from skin cells to beating heart cells in a dish,” said Ding. “It was phenomenal to see.” Ding points out the protocol is fundamentally different from what has been done by other scientists in the past and notes that giving the cells a different kind of signal could turn them into brain cells or pancreatic cells.

Conversion of mouse fibroblasts into cardiomyocytes using a direct reprogramming strategy.<-- more info
Here the authors show that conventional reprogramming towards pluripotency  through overexpression of
Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can be shortcut and  directed towards cardiogenesis in a fast and efficient
manner.

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Stem cells: Ethics and Law

Court case and congressional inaction put embryonic stem cell research in limbo!

The fate of federal funding for human embryonic stem cell research remains in question as a federal appellate panel considers its legality. Pro-life leaders have backed broad restrictions on the funding, saying congressional inaction is due both to uncertainty and to the success of adult stem cell research.

Embryonic stem cell research in limbo!

Embryonic stem cell research in limbo

In August federal district judge Royce Lamberth ruled that the funding violated the 1995 Dickey-Wicker Amendment. In Dec. 6 court arguments, a lawyer for two scientists who filed the lawsuit said federal grants for the research encourage the private sector to create more of the cells.

“There is now an incentive for the future destruction of human embryos,” said the scientists’ lawyer Thomas Hunger, according to the Wall Street Journal. Justice Department lawyer Beth Brinkmann, arguing on behalf of the Obama administration, said that Congress intended to distinguish between promoting the study of embryonic stem cells and paying to create them. The Dickey-Wicker Amendment prohibits taxpayer funding from being used to destroy embryos. President Obama’s present policy holds that the research can be funded so long as the embryos were destroyed using private money.

A congressional bill sponsored by Rep. Diana DeGette (D-Colo.) could allow funding for the research. She told The Hill that her bill is “still not off the table” during the lame-duck session of Congress, but that  it’s an issue of timing. The House leadership sees no point in passing the legislation if it will not also advance in the Senate. Co-sponsor Rep. Mike Castle (R-Del.) said the legislation is less likely to pass each day and he is “not exactly holding my breath.” DeGette said that “real results” of the research are now becoming visible, citing two human-subject studies approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the past two months. She also was optimistic about her legislation’s future, saying a recent Harris Interactive poll found 72 percent of Americans favor using embryonic stem cells left over from in vitro fertilization procedures for medical research.

However, pro-life leaders were critical of these efforts. Richard Doerflinger, associate director of the Secretariat for Pro-Life Activities at the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, commented that Judge Lamberth has “exactly the correct view” of the law. “We’ve always said the Dickey Amendment … forbids funding any research that relies upon destroying human embryos,” he told CNA on Dec. 9. While both the Clinton and Obama administrations have read the law “very narrowly,” the bishops’ conference and the amendment’s sponsors have said its restrictions are broader.

More information <– click here

Appeals Court Upholds Obama Stem Cell Research Order in Second Lawsuit

“The executive order President Barack Obama issued to force taxpayers to finance embryonic stem cell research has been upheld in a decision a federal appeals court issued regarding one of the two lawsuits that have been filed against it.”

Stem Cell Research

Stem Cell Research

The National Organization for Embryonic Law, Nightlight Christian Adoptions and eight parents of children adopted as frozen embryos filed one of two lawsuits the executive order faces and the suit is headed by frozen human embryo Mary Scott Doe as representative of a class of unborn children who would be killed in the research the order funds. A Maryland federal judge has also ready tossed the lawsuit and, this week, the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals upheld that decision. Judge Harvie Wilkinson, writing for the three-judge panel, called the argument “insufficient” because the plaintiffs could not show that all of the frozen embryos would be harmed by the research.

“The complaint does not identify any of the named plaintiff’s particularized characteristics,” the ruling says. “Instead, it leaves us only with questions such as whether the embryo will ever be used for research and whether that research will be funded by the National Institutes of Health. “We have no idea under what terms the named plaintiff embryo was donated or stored or what its status even is,” Wilkinson added. “In the absence of answers, the chosen appellation of Mary Scott Doe could equally designate any member of an amorphous frozen embryo class.” Judge Wilkinson said the panel was also not persuaded by the argument that forcing taxpayers to finance embryonic stem cell research would prompt more women to undergo the painful egg extraction process to donate their eggs for research. He said “the complaint provides no basis to conclude that the named plaintiff in particular will be part of the subset that suffers any injury at all, much less an injury due to the challenged government policy.” “We do not doubt for a moment the sincerity of those who oppose, as well as those who support, the revised NIH funding guidelines,” Wilkinson wrote, referring to the National Institutes of Health. “But depth of conviction, while admirable, cannot serve to displace the courts’ own deep attachment to the law.”

The pro-life advocates have sued the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) on behalf of unborn children who would be destroyed in the research funded by the departments. They want to stop the expected $92 million that could be funneled from taxpayer funds to embryonic stem cell research, which has never helped human patients and has yielded significant problems in studies with animals.

There are two suits and both make similar cases that the Obama order to force taxpayers to fund embryonic stem cell research violates the Dickey-Wicker Amendment, a federal law that prohibits federal funding of scientific studies that destroy human life

Ethics & Health Law News <– more info

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BIOBUSINESS.TV: STEM CELL REVIEW

BioBusiness.TV is the first independent Internet TV Network for biotechnology professionals. The Stem Cell Review is a 10-part original series on the science, medical applications, and business of stem cells. This program will give you a clear and concise understanding of the state of stem cells today, with the additional depth and expertise you would come to expect from the most renown authorities in the field.

The Stem Cell Review is a BioBusiness.TV Original Program, presented by Bill Kridel, produced by Jean-Loup Romet-Lemonne and Jonathan Teper.

EPISODES

Stem Cells at a Glance – Stem Cell Review (EP1)

Allogeneic or Autologous? – Stem Cell Review (EP2)

Biological Processes & Industrial Production – Stem Cell Review (EP3)

Tools for Drug Screening – Stem Cell Review (EP4)

Looking Forward to 2015 – Stem Cell Review (EP5)

Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Connective Disorders – Stem Cell Review (EP6)

Neural Stem Cells and CNS Disorder – Stem Cell Review (EP7)

Stem Cells & Diabetes – Stem Cell Review (EP8)

Autoimmune Diseases & Blood Disorders – Stem Cell Review (EP9)

Tissue Repair – Stem Cell Review (EP10)

BIOBUSINESS.TV <== click here

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Pulled teeth stored for stem cells

Naidelys Montoya didn’t wait for her son’s baby teeth to fall out. She took the boy to an oral surgeon to have two of the loose ones extracted. “He was a bit scared,” said Montoya, of Hialeah. “He’s not that brave.”

The dentist shipped the teeth in a temperature-controlled steel container to a lab in Massachusetts, where their stem cells will be spun out, frozen to more than 100 degrees below zero and stored — in case her son, Raul Estrada, 6, might need them for a future illness. “I believe in this,” Montoya said. “I did as a precaution against things that could happen in the future.”

Montoya and her son have joined a major new medical movement. In South Florida and around the world, dentists are extracting baby teeth, wisdom teeth and even healthy adult teeth, and researchers are spinning out stem cells that they believe can be used to regrow lost teeth, someday even to repair damaged bones, hearts, pancreases, muscles and brains. It could put the Tooth Fairy out of business.

“These are teeth we’ve been discarding as dental waste,” said Dr. Jeffrey Blum, the Miami Beach oral surgeon who pulled Raul’s teeth. “We might as well get some use out of them. “I can’t help but feel excitement for their potential use in regenerating different tissues in the human body,” said Dr. Jeremy Mao, director of the Regenerative Medicine Laboratory at Columbia University. Mao also is chief science advisor to StemSave, a New York City company that freezes the stem cells and stores them for later use.

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Spray-On Stem Cells

Dr. Amit Patel explains how physicians are using spray-on stem cells to help patients heal from heart surgery and burns.

CNN Breaking news video

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